History of ESP

History of ESPExtrasensory perception, ESP or Esper, also called sixth sense or second sight, includes reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but sensed with the mind. According to Wikipedia, the term was adopted by Duke University psychologist J. B. Rhine to denote psychic abilities such as intuition, telepathy, psychometry, clairaudience, and clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retrocognition.


Parapsychology is the study of paranormal psychic phenomena, including ESP. Parapsychology has been criticized for continuing investigation despite being unable to provide convincing evidence for the existence of any psychic phenomena after more than a century of research. The scientific community rejects ESP due to the absence of an evidence base, the lack of a theory which would explain ESP, and the lack of experimental techniques which can provide reliably positive results; and considers ESP to be pseudoscience. (This was all long before you could call the PsychicsDirectory psychic hotline free or take advantage of psychic testing online.)



In the 1930s, at Duke University in North Carolina, J. B. Rhine and his wife Louisa E. Rhine conducted investigation into extrasensory perception and esp psychic ability. While Louisa Rhine concentrated on collecting accounts of spontaneous cases, J. B. Rhine worked largely in the laboratory, carefully defining terms such as ESP and psi and designing experiments to test them. A simple set of cards was developed, originally called Zener cards – now called ESP cards. They bear the symbols circle, square, wavy lines, cross, and star; there are five cards of each in a pack of 25.


In a telepathy esp test or experiment, the “sender” looks at a series of cards while the “receiver” guesses the symbols. To try to observe clairvoyance, the pack of cards is hidden from everyone while the receiver guesses. To try to observe precognition, the order of the cards is determined after the guesses are made. Later he used dice to test for psychokinesis. (These days, you can try free psychic testing online at Psychics Directory.)


Do you or a loved one have ESP psychic abilities?  One of the best ways to find out is by taking the ESP Test available on the Psychics Directory website.  One of several examples of free psychic testing available on the website, the ESP Testat PsychicsDirectory can give you immediate feedback on whether or not you have that amazing “sixth sense” that can help you know when a Taurus man is interestedwhat attracts a Pisces man, how palm reading history can unlock the past and future.  And don’t forget we offer free psychic testing online.

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